Case Studies

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Estuary in Singapore. Source:

Estuary in Singapore. Source:

The occurrence of global changes and new legislation supported by federal and regional governments has led to an increasing interest in managing freshwater inflows in order to conserve and restore estuarine health and functioning of rivers (Acreman 2004). New regulations are being implemented to address environmental flows.

In Texas, Senate Bill 3 addresses the need for environmental flow provisions including the maintenance of freshwater inflows to estuaries. Management initiatives are now being geared towards preserving or restoring natural flow regime patterns in order to create sustainable estuaries.

“The law creates a public process for soliciting input from scientists and stakeholders. Each area of the state has a Stakeholder Committee made up of people from diverse interest groups and an Expert Science Team made up solely of technical experts. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality considers reports from both groups and then adopts legal standards for each river and bay system.” -Texas Water Matters page.


The Senate Bill 3 process is explained on the Texas Water Matters page.

The resulting documents of the Senate Bill 3 process can be found on the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality’s page. 

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